Hunger and Food Insecurity

We all know what it’s like to feel hungry after skipping a meal. Usually, when we eat our hunger goes away. But when we talk about hunger as a problem, we're really talking about food insecurity.

Food insecurity is a condition that leads to hunger. Working families across America face countless situations that can result in food insecurity and hunger.

What is food insecurity?

Food insecurity is defined as a lack of consistent access to enough food for every person in a household to live an active, healthy life. This can be a temporary situation for a household or can last a long time. Food insecurity is one way we can measure how many people cannot afford food.

According to the USDA, more than 34 million people, including 9 million children experience food insecurity in the United States.


What causes food insecurity?

Unfortunately, many people in America struggle to meet their basic needs which increases their risk of food insecurity. Lay-offs at work, unexpected car maintenance, or an accident on the job can suddenly force a family to choose between buying food and paying bills.

The causes of food insecurity are complex. Some of the causes of food insecurity include:

  • Poverty, unemployment, or low income
  • Lack of affordable housing
  • Chronic health conditions or lack of access to healthcare
  • Systemic racism and racial discrimination


What are the effects of food insecurity?

Food insecurity can have a wide impact, depending on each individual’s circumstances. Some of the most common, yet complex, effects of food insecurity include:

  • Serious health complications, especially when people facing hunger are forced to choose between spending money on food and medicine or medical care
  • Damage to a child’s ability to learn and grow
  • Difficult decisions such as choosing between paying for food and heat, electricity, rent, and transportation

Learn more about the unique challenges hunger poses for America’s diverse communities ›



How can we end food insecurity?

Part of what makes food insecurity so difficult to solve is that the underlying causes — poverty, unemployment/under-employment, and inconsistent access to enough healthy food — are often deeply interconnected. Moving in and out of food insecurity simply adds more stress to a household that may already be wrestling with instability and unpredictability.

Feeding America is leading the fight to end hunger in America. In addition to helping provide meals to people who face hunger, we work to raise awareness about the issue, advocate for policies to protect people in need, and conduct in-depth research to find solutions to hunger.

Get the facts on hunger and poverty ›


Is there food insecurity in my state?

Food insecurity affects every county in America. Map the Meal Gap enables you to take a deeper look at food insecurity across the country by giving county by county details. The study ties dollars to data — exposing everything from what people facing hunger spend on meals to what it would cost to close their food-budget shortfall.

Explore our interactive map to learn more about hunger in your community ›
Learn more about hunger in your state:

Tough Choices of Hunger

Heat or food. Electricity or dinner. Rent or a meal. What would you choose? Millions of people facing hunger make these difficult decisions every day.

Learn more about the impacts of hunger >

Equity in Ending Hunger

We work to reach all people facing hunger. But some communities face hunger at higher rates. We support community-centered solutions to address: